Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa, a small sac located between a bone and muscle, skin, or tendon. The bursa allows smooth gliding between these structures. Below are some of the
specific types of bursitis. Subacromial bursitis The subacromial bursa lies just above the rotator cuff. Bursitis often develops due to injury, impingement (pinching), overuse of the shoulder, or
calcium deposits. Symptoms include pain in the upper shoulder or upper third of the arm, and severe pain upon moving the shoulder.
Feet are extremely resilient and are designed to stand up to the pressures of day-to-day living. In some cases, though, foot structures may break down when subjected to chronic stress associated with
long periods of weight-bearing activity on concrete, asphalt, or other hard surfaces (especially when footwear does not allow for proper weight distribution). Foot problems, including infracalcaneal
bursitis, are often made worse by poorly designed footwear, and pressure, impact, and shear forces can damage the feet over time. Bursal sacs are intended to minimize this damage, but sometimes the
bursa itself becomes inflamed. A rapid increase in physical activity levels or thinning of the heel?s protective fat pad are factors that may contribute to infracalcaneal bursitis. Other possible
causes of infracalcaneal bursitis include blunt force trauma. Arthritic conditions. Acute or chronic infection. The following factors may increase a person?s risk of bursitis, including
infracalcaneal bursitis. Poor conditioning. Exposure to cold weather. Participating in contact sports. Having a previous history of bursitis in any joint. Heel striking when running, especially in
conventional running shoes with heel elevation.
Pain or tenderness at the back of the heel around the Achilles region. Increased pain during activities with strong, repetitive calf contractions, walking (uphill), stair climbing, running, jumping.
Pain may be worse with rest after activity (that night or the next morning) or at the beginning of the excercise. Pain when wearing shoes and the heel is getting rubbed. Bump forming on the back of
the heel. Limping. Stiffness. Decreased range of motion. Redness and warmth (if the bursa gets infected).
To begin with, your doctor will gather a medical history about you and your current condition and symptoms. He/she will inquire about the level of your heel pain, the how long you have had the
symptoms and the limitations you are experiencing. Details about what and when the pain started, all are very helpful in providing you with a diagnoses of your ankle / heel.
Non Surgical Treatment
Conservative treatment includes the use of shoe supports (either a heel raise or a donut-shaped heel cushion) and a limited number of local corticosteroid injections (usually up to three per year).
Changing the type of footwear may be essential.
Surgery to remove the damaged bursa may be performed in extreme cases. If the bursitis is caused by an infection, then additional treatment is needed. Septic bursitis is caused by the presence of a
pus-forming organism, usually staphylococcus aureus. This is confirmed by examining a sample of the fluid in the bursa and requires treatment with antibiotics taken by mouth, injected into a muscle
or into a vein (intravenously). The bursa will also need to be drained by needle two or three times over the first week of treatment. When a patient has such a serious infection, there may be
underlying causes. There could be undiscovered diabetes, or an inefficient immune system caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV).