(also known as Achilles tendinopathy) is a soreness and stiffness that comes on gradually and continues to worsen until treated. It is a common injury among middle and long distance runners. The
severity of Achilles tendinosis can be broken down into four stages, each of which can be measured in terms of how the Achilles tendon feels during exercise, the amount of stiffness and creaking, and
Achilles tendon?s soreness to the touch (the Achilles tendon pinch test). The four stages, or grades, are, No pain during exercise, but there is some discomfort in the morning when first getting out
of bed. The stiffness and creaking go away after a few minutes and are fine the rest of the day. Lightly pinching the Achilles tendon with the forefinger and thumb in the morning or after exercise
will probably indicate soreness. Pain during exercise or running, but performance is not affected. The stiffness and creaking continue to appear when first getting out of bed and continue to
disappear shortly afterward. Lightly pinching the Achilles tendon with the forefinger and thumb in the morning or after exercise will indicate soreness. Pain during exercise or running that is
detrimental to performance. The stiffness and creaking continue to appear when first getting out of bed, but may continue for some time and reappear at other points during the day. Lightly pinching
the Achilles tendon with the forefinger and thumb in the morning or after exercise will indicate soreness. Hurts too much to exercise or run. The stiffness and creaking continue to appear when first
getting out of bed, but may continue for most of the day. Lightly pinching the Achilles tendon with the forefinger and thumb at almost any time of day will indicate soreness.
Tendinitis typically develops after abrupt changes in activity or training level, use of poorly fit or worn footwear, or training on uneven or dense running surfaces. Overuse prior to sufficient
training is generally the cause. This is due to forces 8-10 times the body weight acting on the tendon during physical activity. Achilles injuries range from inflammation to a breakdown in the
tendon. Pain is generally felt low on the back of the heel due to the low vascularity and susceptibility for inflammation. Pain higher on the Achilles is generally more muscular pain and less
tendonitis. If swollen spots or knots are found along the tendon, or if the tendon feels jagged, cease activity and seek professional medical care.
Patients with an Achilles tendon rupture frequently present with complaints of a sudden snap in the lower calf associated with acute, severe pain. The patient reports feeling like he or she has been
shot, kicked, or cut in the back of the leg, which may result in an inability to ambulate further. A patient with Achilles tendon rupture will be unable to stand on his or her toes on the affected
side. Tendinosis is often pain free. Typically, the only sign of the condition may be a palpable intratendinous nodule that accompanies the tendon as the ankle is placed through its range of motion
(ROM). Patients with paratenonitis typically present with warmth, swelling, and diffuse tenderness localized 2-6 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion. Paratenonitis with tendinosis. This is
diagnosed in patients with activity-related pain, as well as swelling of the tendon sheath and tendon nodularity.
X-rays are usually normal in patients with Achilles tendonitis, but are performed to evaluate for other possible conditions. Occasionally, an MRI is needed to evaluate a patient for tears within the
tendon. If there is a thought of surgical treatment an MRI may be helpful for preoperative evaluation and planning.
There is insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to determine which method of treatment is the most appropriate for the treatment of acute or chronic Achilles tendonitis. The patient
should abstain from aggravating activities, but with a minimum of rest in order to preserve overall fitness. Possible treatments are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ice, rest,
increased warm-up/stretching exercises, physiotherapy and heel lifts (orthotic devices - used on both sides to prevent a gait imbalance). Other treatments evaluated in a Cochrane review were heparin,
steroid injections, glycosaminoglycan sulfate, Actovegin?, and topical laser treatment. There was no clear evidence of benefit from these. Casting is an option for resistant Achilles tendonitis.
Drugs - analgesics and NSAIDs. Surgery is sometimes used for resistant Achilles tendonitis, but usually as a last resort. Other recently reported treatments include continuing sporting activity in
conjunction with rehabilitation, low-energy shock wave therapy and topical glyceryl trinitrate .
Mini-Open Achilles Tendon Repair. During a mini-open Achilles tendon repair surgery, 2 to 8 small stab incisions are made to pull the edges of the tendon tear together and suture the torn edges to
repair the damage. During this procedure the surgeon will make one 3 to 4 cm long incision on the back of your ankle and 2 to 4 smaller vertical incisions around the long incision. These smaller
veritical incisions are made with a pair of surgical scissors and are commonly referred to as "stab incisions". Once the incisions are opened up, the surgeon will place precise sutures with
non-absorbable stitches to strengthen the damaged Achilles tendon tissue. This suturing technique reduces the amount of scar tissue on the tendon after surgery and provides better surface healing of
the skin. Unlike the traditional method of an open surgery, this procedure has less risks and complications involved. To learn about all risks you may face be sure to speak to your doctor.
Do strengthening and stretching exercises to keep calf muscles strong and flexible. Keep your hamstring muscles flexible by stretching. Warm up and stretch adequately before participating in any
sports. Always increase the intensity and duration of training gradually. Do not continue an exercise if you experience pain over the tendon. Wear properly fitted running and other sports shoes,
including properly fitted arch supports if your feet roll inwards excessively (over-pronate).